this is the work of our team in Mercedes-Benz Hackathon 2016
Benz®Sharing is an entire procedures vehicle share application. In national law the registered owner of a car couldn’t be more than one person, but vehicles can be co-owned actually, that means, common property rights of a co-owned car are also protected by law. Confirm and execute the protection of common property rights of a co-owned car is highly cost.
Now, we can use new technology bring New Market and New Costumers to Benz, while people use the Benz®Sharing to purchase and use vehicles, their common property rights of a co-owned car can be recorded on the blockchain, also can be protected by computer code, these code is the extension of national law.
Sharing economy model, in which legal persons not fully enjoy the right of property or legal person is nothing but a title, is always risky in that it will cause inefficiencies and ultimately lead to the collapse of system. This situation only occurs in state-owned enterprises which have been proven to be failures.
Unlike other ride-sharing Apps, Benz®Sharing introduce the sharing of property concept, thanks to proof of existence, the important characteristic of blockchain. Through highly-precise property right management, the aim of car sharing and complementary use of car according to demand is functionally achieved with legally confirmed rights, thus a truly decentralized sharing economy is realized.
Property management with technology is non-conflicting with existing legal provisions. It is the evolution and extension of existing law, for technology contributes to better legal protection of shared ownership.
Though the special evidentiary effect of block chain technology is not expressly stipulated by law yet, the court can absolutely treat blockchain data as ordinary electronic evidence and carry out professional identification shall legal disputes occur. Even if there is no identified legal attest status of block chain similar to digital certificates (PKI-CA system) in China, the technology itself can greatly reduce the cost of identification for the same reason that blockchain has natural notarization and authority.
Html5 defines the 5th major revision of the core language of the World Wide Web: the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).
Ethereum is a public blockchain-based distributed computing platform, featuring smart contract functionality. It provides a decentralized virtual machine, the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), that can execute peer-to-peer contracts using a cryptocurrency called ether.
Smart Contracts are account holding objects on the ethereum blockchain. They contain code functions and can interact with other contracts, make decisions, store data, and send ether to others. Contracts are defined by their creators, but their execution, and by extension the services they offer, is provided by the ethereum network itself. They will exist and be executable as long as the whole network exists, and will only disappear if they were programmed to self destruct.
The system is similar to a typical server-client model. The difference between this and the standard server-client is the addition of the blockchain and IoT access interfaces.
Module structured diagram
We will divide data storage into four layers (runtime layer, archives layer, business layer and proof layer) and will be introduced from bottom to top respectively. When first setting up your systems, data start record in the bottom (the runtime layer) use RDS database. With the growth of data in volume and smart contracts running, lower layer holds only parts of data and anchor it to upper layer while synchronizing others.
As you see in Figure ‘Hierarchical data storage structure’, each layer adds anchor field to next layer, either to decrease length of data or, as it turns out, to speed of access.
The usefulness of schemas increases with the number of smart contracts accessing the information. It’s a good strategy, since it would both assuage I/Os of blockchain and ensure concurrency and consistency
Hierarchical data storage structure
In client app, local database like sqlite/mysql can be applied to store real-time data, so as to make the user operation convenient and swift. Data persistence technology like radis can be adopted in the server and important information node. Data or smart contracts wait for confirm operation of block chain in a long work queue without affecting the user interactive.
In real life scenarios, internet connection may be a big problem. As in the underground garage there is no network access, but blockchain technology can impact IoT distributed systems, sensors and data.
the blockchain has its unique advantages. In the near future, the block chain will be divided into different types of nodes: light node, full node, LES node, archive node. Mobile phones, vehicle computer or other electronic equipment can run different node type of blocks chain. Using Bluetooth, NFC or LoRa protocol synchronize data block, the similar M2M self-sustaining scene will some day become a reality as a typical kind of the Internet running model.
After selecting his favorite car, the user can initiate a shared purchase, and the system will generate complementary recommendation according to the user’s needs and form a shared purchase conditional offer, which will have the force of law once the user makes a commitment with payment.
Screenshot: Car sales
A user can check his equity share, which constantly changes with the change of use conditions. Via user’s input and execution of intelligent contract, the sensor data is continually updated, recorded in database and regularly recorded and anchored in ethereum and bitcoin block chain (Bitcoin block chain is currently the safest and most reliable block chain legal attest pattern, see section 4-5) as designed in the graph Hierarchical data structure.
Screenshot: Offer and deal
(* 张三，李四 are common Chinese name like ‘Peter’ or ‘John’)
Car-sharing could be only way that people use cars in the future. Users can change their daily needs at any time, whose will take effect while approved by other owners of the car. Users’ access rights of the car will be ultimately distributed through smart contract.
Screenshot: Using Setting
When using the car, user checks cars nearby, and he can choose from his own car and others’ cars (of different styles and different lines).
The user’s different options will trigger the execution of different smart contracts, thus determining the user’s final permission.
When each employment is completed, user can confirm whether the contract is executed as agreed through vehicle sensor data, for example, whether the car is retrieved at appointed place. Multiple usage scenarios can be conveniently and flexibly programmed in the smart contract, for example, emergency employment will lead to higher costs, overdue usage will be fined, etc.
According to the provisions in smart contract, the system will eventually judge whether a user has the permission to unlock the car, to trigger IoT control system event: door-opening, flameout, etc.
Unlock smart contract flow sheet
They rely on user-based rating systems for quality control, ensuring a level of trust between consumers and service providers who have not previously met.
Use the blockchain technology to enhance the edge of national law, achieved the dynamic and highly-precise management of vehicle ownership.
Screenshot: Vehicle ownership
Proof data in btc blockchain
Unlike traditional settlement, a user’s usage of car is considered renting other owners shares in BS, so the costs can be cleared by changing ownership ratio of the car. For example, in the following screenshot, the vehicle suffers operational abrasion, fuel consumption and decreased value due to impairment. Specific changes in the value are determined by a set of formulas, which are also based on the smart contract.
Screenshot: Profits and Losses
In fact, the share of owners and value of car are calculated according to two different sets of smart contracts: Profits and Losses. The Profits take all users’ share rent behaviors as income. The total income in the Losses is distributed according to users’ current shares. The Losses calculates the loss during usage, the loss covers more than fuel consumption and refueling, vehicle maintenance is also recorded as reverse loss. The two sets share a balance, and anchor to blockchain in hierarchical data structure.
Profits merely deals with financial issues, while Losses handle a variety of business process, since such designs can easy to configure and optimize performance so as to get ready for financial derivative operations such as debenture share, ABS project of automobile operation, etc.